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Migration Movement Immigration  1650 to 1890

Page history last edited by Mr. Hengsterman 7 years, 10 months ago






AP Theme:  Demographic Changes:  changes in birth, marriage and death rates; life expectancy and family patterns; population size and density.  The economic, social and political effects of immigration, internal migration, and migration networks.

AP Theme: American Identity: Views of the American national character and ideas about American exceptionalism.  Recognizing regional differences within the context of what it means to be an Americans
During the 1840’s, Americans expanded westward.  Manifest destiny, the belief that occupying land from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean was America’s God-given right, became a national passion.  The territory the U.S. purchased or won in war between 1783 and 1853 was occupied by Native Americans who also claimed the land.



Manifest Destiny, the belief that the United States is divinely inspired to spread across the continent, becomes the rationale for widespread territorial expansion. Critics repudiate it as nothing short of unbridled  imperialism. 


It is interesting to note both John Winthorp's "City Upon a Hill" and John O'Sullivan's concept of Manifest Destiny assumed that America had a divinely sanctioned support to create a moral society



The U.S. won the Revolutionary War and was granted independence by Great Britain in 1783.



The Treaty of Paris, which officially ended the Revolutionary War, resulted in Great Britain ceding the Northwest Territory to the U.S.  In return, the U.S. agreed to pay debts owed to British investors and not to prosecute colonists who remained loyal to Britain during the war.




Land Ordinance of 1785  

Established a policy for division & settlement of land north of the Ohio River

Townships of 6 miles square divided into 36 subdivisions of 640 acres each

Sale of sections used to pay off national debt (at least $1 an acre)

Sale of 1 section used to support public education

Native Americans were totally disregarded until the Treaty of Greenville (1795)

Some negotiating with Indians over land




Northwest Ordinance of 1787
2-Stage plan for territories becoming states:

#1 When an area had a population of more than 5,000 adult males > it could establish a government [governor, legislature, judges]. At 60,000 people > write a constitution & apply for statehood

#2  Statehood  -  When Congress approved their constitution: Northwest Territory became Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, & Wisconsin




More indepth, more graphics



In 1800, the U.S. feared the closing of the Mississippi River to United States by France.  President Jefferson tried to buy the port of New Orleans and West Florida from France and obtain a guarantee that U.S. vessels cold navigate the Mississippi River.  France offered to sell the entire Louisiana Territory.  After considerable deliberation, the strict constructionist Jefferson, purchased the Louisiana Territory for $15 million. 


FLORIDA (1819)

In 1818, General Andrew entered Florida (a colony of Spain) to attack the Seminole Native Americans who were raiding settlers in Georgia.  The U. S. demanded that Spain control the Native Americans or sell Florida to the U. S.   In 1819, Spain sold Florida to the U. S. for $5 million.




In 1821, Mexico (a colony of Spain) became independent.  Americans, especially cotton growers, began moving to Texas, a territory within Mexico’s border.  Fearing that U. S. Settlers were becoming too numerous and powerful , Mexico passed several laws which banned additional slaves in Texas.   In 1836, Texas fought and won its independence from Mexico.  Texas requested annexation into the U. S. but was opposed by northerners who feared the admittance of an additional slave state.  Despite northern pressure, President Polk annexed Texas in 1845.


Andrew Jackson believed that Texas should be admitted to the Union as a slave state, but withheld action out of fear of the political consequences - the slave state/free state debate



A boundary dispute with Mexico resulted from the U. S. annexation of Texas in 1845.  Mexico claimed that the boundary of Texas was the Nueces River while the U. S. claimed it was further south along the Rio Grande River.  When Mexico refused to sell California to the U. S., President Polk sent troops into the region and fired upon the U. S. troops they felt entered Mexican territory.   By 1847, Mexico had surrendered to superior U. S. forces.  As a result of the The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848), Mexico ceded much of present-day southwest and California to the United States (Mexican Cession) and settled on the Rio Grande as the boundary of Texas.  The U. S. agreed to pay Mexico $15 million.


Focus more attention on the consequences of the Mexican War than its causes. Be sure to identify the provisions of the Treaty of Hildalgo and explain how the war reflected the sectional interests of the New Englanders and Southerners


#1 Ralph Waldo Emerson on the Mexican War "The United States will conquer Mexico," he said, "but it will be as though a man swallows arsenic, which brings him down in turn. Mexico will poison us."  



#2 The Wilmot Proviso (a rally cry of the Free Soil Movement). David Wilmot proposed an amendment that stated that the territory from Mexico should remain slave-free. The language was borrowed from the Northwest Ordinance. All but one northern state legislature endorsed it. All southern legislatures condemned it (a sign of things to come???)







Since Britain and the U. S. settled the Oregon Territory jointly, there was no specific boundary.  U. S. expansionists wanted all of the Oregon Territory.  Presidential Polk, whose campaign platform called for total control of the disputed territory, eventually compromised with Great Britain and the boundaries of the Oregon Territory were established at the 49th parallel.




Acquire from Mexico for $10 million, the land was to be used for the transcontinental railroad.  Many historians feel the large sum of money for such a small parcel of land was compensation for land taken from the Mexican War.



The Mexican War brought about the conflict of slavery between the states!!!!!   STAY TUNED…..





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