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African American History 1865 to 1945

Page history last edited by Mr. Hengsterman 7 years, 10 months ago

Milestones in African American History  
Abolition, Reconstruction and the New South 1865 to 1896 

 

 

 

The Realities and Legacies of Reconstruction 1865-1877

“A splendid failure did not achieve its goals in any lasting manner”
Wrote one of the first major history of Reconstruction 
WEB DuBois

 

 

 

 

 

The Compromise of 1877 Rutherford B. Hayes won election, Republicans agreed to end reconstruction to pacify Democrats.  Hayes promised to show concern for Southern interests and end Reconstruction in exchange for the Democrats accepting the fraudulent election results. He took Union troops out of the South

 

 

 

 

A Letter from Jourdan Anderson 

 

 

Sharecroppers : South sought to revert the South to the antebellum (before the civil war) period and make blacks second class citizens in a role nearly identical to slavery. They forced the freedmen into an economic subservient situation similar to slavery known as sharecropping and tenant farming.

 

 

 

 

Plessy vs. Ferguson 1896
Homer Adolph Plessy, a light-skinned Louisiana black man, was arrested for sitting in a railroad car reserved by Louisiana law for whites. In a New Orleans court his lawyers argued that the law was unconstitutional, but Judge John H. Ferguson ruled against them, on the ground that the railroad had provided separate but equally good cars for blacks, as the law required. This line of reasoning was upheld by the Supreme Court. The case is remembered today mainly for the dissent of Justice John Marshall Harlan. “Our Constitution is color-blind,” Harlan wrote. “The arbitrary separation of citizens, on the basis of race … is a badge of servitude wholly inconsistent with civil freedom.”

 

 

 

 

 



 

Milestones in African American History 
The Progressive Era, 1897 to 1917

 

 

No significant steps were taken during the Progressive Era to challenge the South's Jim Crow system, solidly in place by 1900, which kept Blacks in a 2d class citizen status until the 1960s. No books like Helen Hunt's Century of Dishonor challenged the American conscience toward the plight of Southern Black citizen

 

 

 

 

 

The NAACP 1909   a biracial organization was founded in New York Its primary purpose became to challenge racial discrimination and segregation in public places through the legal system. Challenged laws which permitted the use of the mails to send publications fostering racial prejudice.

 

Birth of a Nation (1915)was the highest-grossing film of its day, and is noted for its innovative camera techniques and narrative achievements. It has provoked great controversy for promoting white supremacy and positively portraying the "knights" (male members) of the Ku Klux Klan as heroes



Ida B. Wells A Red Record (1895) Provided statistics on the lynching of African-Americans. IMPACT: NAACP joined the fight for Federal anti-lynching legislation.

 

 



 

Milestones in African American History
The 1920’s and the Great Depression

 

 

Harlem Renaissance was flowering of African American intellectual life during the 1920s and 1930s. It was also known as the "New Negro Movement

 

 


 

 

 

 

Great Depression and the New Deal, 1929-1941

New Deal programs offer more opportunities to white men than to women and minorities. Women and African Americans are paid less for the same work.

New Deal programs did not directly confront racial segregation and injustice!

Shift in Voting Patterns – African Americans shifted support from Republicans to Democrats

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“Double V” Campaign: victory over fascism abroad and victory over discrimination at home. 

 

General discrimination in housing and employment; continuation of Jim Crow segregation. Great Migration:   Over one million found defense jobs in North and on West Coast.

 

 

Executive Order 8802 (1941) banned discrimination in defense industries and government; poorly enforced but did lead to some change in hiring practices.  Created Fair Employment Practices Committee for enforcement.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

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